Authors: Anas Bennani, Sagal Ibrahim Mohamed.
Introduction: The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the oral effects of regular khat consumption in Djibouti by placing risk factors and symptoms related to consumption as a contribution to the ongoing scientific discourse.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out on 129 patients consulting in a health center affiliated to the CNSS, located in the capital of the Republic of Djibouti, Djibouti-City from August to October 2017. The support of the survey is a questionnaire including an interview and a clinical examination. The subjects are divided into regular khat consumers (CK) and non-khat consumers (NCK).
Results: Our sample is divided into 48.1% CK and 51.9% NCK. 80.7% of CK and 38.8% of NCK are male. 58.1% of CK and 88.1% of NCKs report a frequency greater than or equal to 2 brushings / day. 62.9% of CK and 4.5% of NCK are tobacco users (CT). 77.4% of CK and 20.9% of NCK are consumers of sweetened beverages.
62.9% of CK and 16.4% of NCKs report symptoms of dry mouth. 38.7% of CK and 16.4% of NCK suffer from TMJ pain. 32.3% of CK and 14.9% of NCK complain of changes in taste perception. 29% of CK and 4.5% of NCK have burning sensations in the tongue or other parts of the oral cavity. 24.2% of CK and 7.5% of NCK report loss of prosthetic restorations and / or strides.
The plate indices of CK and NCK are 1.6 (+/- 0.13) and 1.4 (+/- 0.13), respectively. The gingival indices of CK and NCK are respectively 1.64 (+/- 0.13) and 1.57 (+/- 0.09).
24.2% of CK and 1.5% of NCK have whitish lesions of leucoplastic appearance. 79% of CKs and 23.9% of NCKs have recessions.
22.6% of CKs and 6% of NCKs suffer from spoiled restorations. 24.2% of CK and 9% of NCK suffer loss of fixed prosthetic
Discussion: Similar to studies in Yemen and Israel, there is a slight predominance of NCKs in our sample. The consumption of khat is also significantly associated with the male sex. A number of articular, mucosal and dental symptoms are significantly associated with khat consumption. Ethiopian, Yemeni and Israeli studies are in agreement with our results.
In agreement with a Yemeni study but in contradiction with a Kenyan study, there is a significant association between khat consumption, poor oral hygiene and increased plaque index. Nevertheless, an association between khat consumption and gingival inflammation is not established.
In agreement with Israeli and Yemeni studies, there is a significant association between khat consumption, whitish mucosal lesions of leucoplastic appearance and gingival recessions. Regular consumption of khat is also significantly associated with the loss of prosthetic and / or striated restorations. Our results are confirmed by a Saudi study.
Conclusion: Regular consumption of khat is significantly associated with a number of oral disorders. Future prevention campaigns should focus on the male population and the concomitant use of tobacco.View/Download pdf